What determines legal status?

In general, the State determines the legal status of a State entity. Legal status is the status or position held by an entity as determined by law. It includes or implies a set of privileges, obligations, powers, or restrictions that a person or thing has, as contemplated or declared by law. Another potential barrier to business ownership among immigrants is legal status.

Legal status can affect the decision to start a business for several reasons. First, legal status is a prerequisite for access to many institutions that are important to entrepreneurs. Legal residents have access to the court system should disputes arise with employees or customers. Legal status may also be required to participate in government contracts.

Legal migrants are more likely to own assets that can be used as collateral and, therefore, to have access to credit. These factors suggest that legal status should result in higher levels of business ownership. On the other hand, Kossoudji and Cobb-Clark (200) found that Latino salaried and salaried workers who obtained legal status through the IRCA experienced wage increases, which increased the opportunity costs of starting a business. [8] Therefore, the association between legal status and company ownership is theoretically ambiguous.

An official website of the United States Government Use of official websites. Government A. The gov website belongs to an official United States government organization. What is the Immigrant and Employee Rights Section (IER)? TO.

The Immigrant and Employee Rights Section (IER) of the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice enforces the anti-discrimination provision of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). What type of employer conduct does the INA's anti-discrimination provision prohibit? The IER charge form is available in several languages. Charges must be filed within 180 days of the alleged discrimination or retaliation. You can find more information on how to file a charge here.

What happens after a charge is filed? A. Once IER receives what it considers to be an accusation, IER will begin its investigation. If IER has not filed a complaint with an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) within 120 days of receiving the accusation, it will send you a letter notifying the aggrieved party or authorized representative of your right to file an administrative complaint against the defendant and indicating whether IER is continuing with the investigation. The IER will also notify the defendant of its decision to continue with the investigation.

The IER can also file a complaint with an administrative judge after this 120-day investigation period. To learn more about the IER research process, contact IER and call 8 U, S, C. Once a case is presented, pre-trial matters are generally handled in accordance with the applicable Q. Can I report a violation of the anti-discrimination provision without filing charges? Q.

How can I contact the IER for help? Q. How does the IER hotline work? TO. IER has multilingual staff, including lawyers, ready to help workers, employers, and the general public who contact IER through its worker or employer hotline. IER hotlines provide workers and employers with an opportunity to receive information about the INA's anti-discrimination provision and to work directly with IER staff to resolve potential immigration-related labor disputes informally and quickly without contested litigation.

Workers and employers are encouraged to call the respective hotlines listed above for help with immigration-related labor issues. Please note that IER cannot provide legal advice or individual legal representation. Language services are available and are free of charge. Can an IER staff member speak at my next live performance? Q.

Who is the IER's point of contact for media inquiries? Q. What documents can I show my employer to establish my identity and work eligibility? A. The Department of Homeland Security has designated several acceptable document combinations from which workers can choose to prove their identity and work eligibility. Form I-9 contains lists of acceptable documents that fall into three categories (see the next question for additional information on acceptable documents).

A worker can submit documentation from List A (which establishes their identity and eligibility for employment) or a combination of documentation from List B (which establishes identity) and List C (which establishes eligibility for employment). Employers cannot specify what documents they will accept from a worker and should not prevent a person from working because of a document's future expiration date. For more information on acceptable documents, visit I-9 Central. If you have questions about potential discriminatory practices related to verifying employment eligibility, contact the IER.

You can also learn more about unfair documentary practices in 8 U, S, C. What is the difference between an employment authorization document card (Form I-76 on list A of the list of acceptable documents on Form I-9) and an employment authorization document issued by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) on List C? TO. An employment authorization document (EAD, form I-76) is a document from the Form I-9 on List A and is sometimes referred to as a “work permit” or “employment authorization card”. In contrast, an “employment authorization document” issued by DHS under List C refers to other types of documents issued by DHS that would not otherwise be included in the lists of acceptable documents.

Some examples of these documents include a Form I-94 issued to asylees or non-immigrants with authorization to work (for example, H-1B non-immigrants) because of their immigration status, a current reentry permit (Form I-32, US certificate). UU. Citizenship (Form N-560) or Surrogate Citizenship Certificate (Form N-56 (PDF, 40 KB), Certificate of Naturalization (Form N-550) or N-570 (PDF), and Form I-797 issued to a conditional resident in combination with their expired permanent resident card. You can learn more by visiting the I-9 Central page on acceptable documents, calling IER, and contacting USCIS customer service.

If I don't have a document from the Lists of Acceptable Documents, can I show my employer anything else? A. According to the reception rule (which is discussed here and found at 8 C, F, R. The receipt is valid for a temporary period. There are three different documents that qualify as acceptable receipts for I-9 purposes.

If your employer does not accept a valid receipt for Form I-9 purposes, contact the IER for help. If a worker records a USCIS or alien number on the form I-9, does the employer need to see or can request a document with that number? A. If a worker records a USCIS or alien number, or an admission number, in section 1 of Form I-9, the employer cannot request or view a specific document with that number or otherwise specify what documentation a worker can submit, depending on the worker's citizenship status. Asking an employee for proof of citizenship or immigration status in the process of verifying a worker's employment authorization could violate the law that IER enforces at 8 U, S, C.

Both during the initial verification and during the reverification, the worker can choose what documentation to submit from the List of Acceptable Documents on Form I-9.Can an employer ask an employee to present a Social Security card for payroll (and not for personal purposes)? Q. Does an employer need to see a worker's Social Security card to make sure that the Social Security number listed in Section 1 is correct? A. Registering a social security number (SSN) in section 1 of Form I-9 is optional, unless the employer uses E-Verify. If an employer uses E-Verify, the E-Verify rules require the worker to complete the SSN field.

An employer should not yet request to review the card for verification for purposes of Section 1, and requesting more documentation, other than or specific to that required to complete Form I-9 depending on the worker's citizenship status or national origin may violate the INA's anti-discrimination provision at 8 U, S, C. Note that if a worker is still waiting for an SSN when completing Form I-9 and the employer uses E-Verify, the E-Verify instructions instruct the employer to wait to create the E-Verify case until an SSN is issued to the worker. As long as the worker has completed Form I-9, they will continue to work while waiting for the SSN. To verify employment eligibility, the employer must allow its workers to choose what documents to show from the lists of acceptable documents on Form I-9 and request a specific document or more documents depending on the worker's citizenship status may be in violation of the law in 8 U, S, C.

If the documentation seems reasonably genuine and is related to the worker, another part of the INA (in 8 U, S, C. If your employer has required a specific document for I-9 purposes, contact the IER. A job applicant submitted an employment authorization document that expires next month. As an employer, I don't want to train the worker without the guarantee that the worker will continue to be authorized to work in the future.

Can an employer reject the job applicant due to the uncertainty of continuing employment authorization? A. Workers with temporary or continuous employment authorization can submit documents with future due dates. Even if a worker has a temporary work authorization, the worker can receive a subsequent employment authorization. Therefore, a future due date does not necessarily mean that a worker cannot work beyond the date listed on the document submitted.

The rules for reverifying employment authorization when a worker has shown a temporary employment authorization document are described in the Employers Handbook and in numbers 8 C, F, R. The Employer Handbook also explains that an employer cannot refuse to accept a document because it has a future expiration date. In addition, considering the expiration date of a future employment authorization to determine if a person qualifies for a particular job may constitute an unfair immigration-related labor practice in violation of the INA's anti-discrimination provision at 8 U, S, C. A worker has presented an employer with a document that looks false.

Can an employer refuse to accept it without violating the anti-discrimination provision? A. Under the INA's employer sanctions provision, an employer cannot accept a document that does not appear reasonably genuine or that is not related to the person. However, an employer cannot apply different levels of scrutiny to documents based on the worker's citizenship, immigration status, or national origin, and refusing a valid document based on the worker's citizenship status or national origin may violate the law in 8 U, S, C. An employer may ask the worker for different documentation if the request is based on the fact that the first document submitted does not appear reasonably authentic.

If the employer rejects a document and does not provide the worker with an opportunity to submit a different valid document, the worker may allege unfair documentary practices under Articles 8 U, S, C. In addition, contacting the IER for help before rejecting a document solely because the employer is not familiar with the type of document being submitted can help the employer avoid a potential claim for unfair documentary practices. A worker's DHS-issued employment authorization document has expired and the worker wants to show a Social Security card to reverify it. Does the employer need to see a current DHS document? A.

For reverification, the rules of Form I-9 require the worker to submit a current document from List A or List C of their choice. Therefore, if a worker presents a Social Security card without restrictions when re-verifying, they do not need to submit a current DHS document, even if they submitted a DHS document for the initial verification of employment eligibility. However, if a worker presents a restricted Social Security card (which indicates that it is not valid for employment, valid for work only with authorization from the INS, or valid for work only with authorization from DHS), the employer cannot accept the restricted Social Security card because it is not an acceptable I-9 document. In that case, the employer may ask the worker to submit another current document from List A or List C of their choice.

Please note that the documents in List B are not required for the new verification. If you have questions about the acceptability of documents for reverification, please contact the IER. Does an employer need to reverify the work authorization of lawful permanent residents who present a green card with a future expiration date? A. Lawful permanent residents who present a current permanent resident card (Form I-551 or green card) are not subject to re-verification, even if Form I-551 indicates a future expiration date.

Reverifying permanent residence cards may constitute a violation of the INA's anti-discrimination provision in 8 U, S, C. If you have questions about how to carry out the reverification in a non-discriminatory manner, contact the IER. Form I-9 rules instruct employers not to re-verify a lawful permanent resident who initially presented a valid permanent resident card, even when the card expires. Employers who request documents when they do not require them, depending on the worker's citizenship status, may violate the INA's anti-discrimination provision in 8 U, S, C.

If your employer reverifies your employment eligibility after presenting a current permanent resident card, contact the IER. I have Temporary Protected Status (TPS) and the Department of Homeland Security extended my Employment Authorization Document (EAD). My employer insists that I show a valid card to continue working. When my employer created an E-Verify case with my information, I received a provisional confirmation (TNC) and notified him that I had decided to take steps to resolve the TNC.

I have work authorization, but my employer told me that I can only start working after I have resolved my TNC. Is my employer allowed to do this? Q. Can an employer participating in E-Verify fire or suspend an employee who decides to challenge a lack of provisional confirmation (TNC), based on the TNC? A. An ETN does not necessarily mean that the worker is not authorized to work.

The law and the E-Verify regulations do not allow an employer to take adverse action against the worker because the worker is resolving the TNC, including terminating or suspending the worker. The E-Verify rules require the employer to wait for a final resolution from E-Verify, even if that final resolution takes longer than the typical period. Dismissing a person based on the assumption that they are not authorized to work solely in a transnational company may violate the INA's anti-discrimination provision under Articles 8 U, S, C. For more information, including employers' best practices to avoid discrimination in the use of E-Verify, see IER's E-Verify guide for employers Q.

If a worker's name and social security number don't match Social Security Administration (SSA) records, should the employer automatically conclude that the worker is not authorized to work? As stated by the Social Security Administration in its A. Citizens, unless required by federal, state, or local laws or federal contracts that require specific positions to be held solely by the U.S. If a job applicant is discouraged or denied employment because of their citizenship status, the employer may be committing discrimination based on their citizenship status in violation of the INA's anti-discrimination provision. You can learn more about discrimination by citizenship status at 8 U, S, C.

If you believe that your request may have been wrongly denied because you are not an American,. They turned me down because the employer only likes to hire workers on temporary visas. Is the employer authorized to do this? TO. Not considering or hiring skilled workers protected from discrimination based on citizenship (EE) status.

Domestic workers, asylees, refugees, and recent lawful permanent residents based on their citizenship status violate a part of the INA found in 8 U, S, C. Employers can violate this law even if they follow the rules of employment-based temporary visa programs, if the employer makes its hiring decision based on the worker's citizenship status. Contact IER if you think an employer discriminated against you because of your citizenship status. Can I ask applicants for information about citizenship or immigration status? TO.

In general, an employer can ask job applicants if they have the legal right to work in the United States and if they will need sponsorship to obtain a work visa. Requesting specific information about citizenship status for purposes unrelated to any recruitment, hiring, or dismissal decision is unlikely to violate the law enforcing IER. However, rejected applicants who submit to these types of questions may believe that the employer based its decision on the applicant's citizenship status (which includes immigration status). Therefore, it is good practice to avoid asking applicants for this information.

If my company carries out an activity regulated by the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) or the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), does the ITAR or the EAR require me to hire only the United States. Nothing in the ITAR or EAR requires or allows an employer to limit jobs to the U.S. However, the ITAR or EAR may require a company to obtain authorization if certain employees need access to technology regulated by the ITAR or the EAR, and such requirements may affect the work environment of these employees. In particular, a company may need to obtain authorization to disclose covered technology to non-U.S.

employees,. Nationals, lawful permanent residents, asylees, or refugees. Contact the Department of State's Defense Trade Controls Directorate for more information on the requirements of the ITAR and the Office of Industry and Security of the Department of Commerce for more information on the export requirements considered under the EAR. I applied for a job with an employer that only has four employees and they refused to hire me because of my national origin.

I applied for a job with an employer that only has four employees and they told me that to be hired I would have to speak English without a foreign accent. A small employer (four to 14 employees) that rejects an applicant for having a foreign accent may violate the INA's anti-discrimination provision at 8 U, S, C. Such conduct by a larger employer (15 or more employees) may violate Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which is enforced by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. More information on discrimination based on national origin is available here.

Department of Justice 950 Pennsylvania Avenue NW Deputy Attorney General's Office, Main Washington DC 20530 Civil Rights Division 202-514-3847 Sign up for email updates Social media Do you have any questions about government services?. Minors usually assume the legal residence of either parent and, when they turn 18, they also have the option of establishing their own legal residence, which may be different from that of either parent, assuming that they have met the guidelines for physical presence and intention to stay or return. Fairlie and Woodruff (20) used a sample of undocumented immigrants from the Legalized Population Survey (LPS) and the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) as a natural experiment to assess the impact of legal status on Mexican-American business ownership. It is clear, then, that the legal purpose of the license is to protect public health, safety, and welfare, and that validation activities must be related to that legal purpose.


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